(Translated from Russian on the web page www.wolgadeutsche.ru)
Dobrinka, Lower Dobrinka, the German lower Dobrinka, Deich-Dobrinka, until 1917 - a German colony, first of Ust-Kulalinskaya colonist district, but after 1871 the Ust-Kulalinskaya parish, Kamyshinskaja County, Saratov province. In the Soviet period - a German village and the administrative center of the first Lower Ilovlinskogo area, Golo Karamyshskogo County, Labor communes (districts) of the Volga Germans, and then from 1922 - Kamensky (up to 1927 Canton Center - with. Kamenka, and since 1927 g. - with. Dobrinka), and from 1935 - Dobrinsky canton of the Volga Germans, Dobrinsky administrative center of the village council (in 1926 in the Village Council were: pp. Dobrinka, Max. Milgraben).
A Lutheran and Baptist Village, the first base Povolzhskaya German colony, was founded 29 June 1764. Located at 50 ° 19 ' north latitude and 45 ° 42 ' east longitude. Dobrinka river, which gave the name of the colony, the place of its confluence with the Volga River, 32 km north-east of Kamyshin. Maternal crown colony. The founders - 94 families, natives of Wurttemberg, Darmstadt, Ottevaldena, Heidelberg, Isenburg, and Zweibrücken. By decree of 26 February 1768, on the names of German colonies received the official name of Lower Dobrinka.
In statements on the number of colonists who settled in Astrakhan province (in 1780 the German colonies were a part of the Saratov governorship, and from 1797 - Saratov region), followed in 1769 in the colony of Lower Dobrinka home to 85 families, of which 63 families are able to farm, and 22 are incapable of farming, they considered 323 souls of both sexes, including 168 male, 155 female. The colonists had livestock: horses 149, working cattle 42 cows and calves 169, pigs 9.
The village belonged to the Lutheran congregation at Galka. A stone church was built in 1845 and the village was the center of baptism in the Volga region.
In the winter, every Tuesday in the village there were bazaars. There were: steam mill (EI Borel 1876), water mills , a sawmill, manufacturing mill and the threshing stones, weaving, paramedical group (c 1894), parochial school (from 1780), Zemstvo School (1886); pier on the Volga River "Merchant Shipping", where the load is more than 100 thousand tons of various goods (1901), elementary school, a library, and the People's House (1926).
Number of residents in different years:
1767 = 307 1773 = 353 1788 = 392 1798 = 552 1816 = 856 1834 = 1687
1850 = 2601 1859 = 2866 1883 = 2825 1897 = 2737 1904 = 4661 1911 = 5619
1920 = 3719 1922 = 3296 1926 = 3418 1931 = 3660 1939 = 4262
In 1918, during the Civil War the village was burned.
In 2003, the village of Lower Dobrinka, is in theKamyshinsky region of Volgograd, with a population of 1160 people. It is the center of Nizhnedobrinskoy rural administration. There is a school, hospital, shops. 8 km south of the village is a geological monument of nature "Urak-mountain" - the original form of the mountain height of 100 m above the edge of the Volgograd water reservoir with artificial caves and tunnels. Southern boundary of Reserve "Kulaninsky.
In "A. N. Mink, Historical and Geographical Dictionary of the Saratov Province (Saratov, Russia, 1898)": pages 231-234.
Note: dessyantine = 2.3 acres, sazhen = 2.13 meters
Dobrinka Lower (Lower Dobrinka), Dobrinka, a colony of settler owners, the former colonies, German Lutherans, and part Baptists, Kamyshinsky district, Ust-Kulalinskaya parish, located at 50 ° 18 ' north longitude and 15 ° 24 ' east latitude, from Pulkovo on the right bank of the Volga, the Dobrinka river flowing into the Volga (which gave the village its name), to which there are several convenient entrances. In the village a stone Lutheran Church, covered with iron and consecrated in 1845, parochial school, in existence since 1780; Zemstvo school in 1886, flat with a police sergeant in 1886, nurse and paramedic point in 1894, in the village marketplace, but markets are collected only in winter time on Tuesdays, and sell accessories and peasant carts going 20-30. I sat on the Volga steamer wharf merchant society and the ferry. The colony was founded somewhat earlier Upper Dobrinka, in the years 1764-66, the Germans came here from Saxony, Holstein, Virtemberga and other places. As statements of foreign settlers in 1859 a colony of Lower Dobrinka belonged to the Ust-Kulalinskaya district and it was considered:
1788 - 73 households, 195 male, 197 female
1798 - 83 households, 276 male, 276 female
1816 - 119 households, 431 male, 435 female
1834 - 158 households, 844 male, 843 female
1850 - 202 households, 1307 male, 1294 female
1857 - 290 households, 2779 male, 1386 female
According to the list of inhabited places of the Central Statistical Committee, the publication in 1862, the German Colony Dobrinka shown in the lower Volga River, 30 km from city Kamyshin, and in it 197 households, 1441 men, 1425 women, 2,866 persons of both sexes; Church Lutheran - 1; bazaars, marina; dyeing facility; mills.
After the 10th revision (census) (1857), there had been 618 registered males relocated in the Samara province, Novouzensk county, Torgunskuyu parish.
Beginning in 1875, Dobrinka residents began to leave for America, wishing to avoid military service. By 1880, 3 registered males had left, and then another 6 families of 10 males and 14 females left, all going to Kansas.
In 1887, 11 families left, and none returned to Dobrinka. By the Zemstvo census in 1886, in Lower Dobrinka: 321 households, 1290 male, 1244 female, with 2534 souls of both sexes, in addition, 169 families are constantly absent and foreign population of 19 families, 52 souls of both sexes. Literacy was considered 711 male, 688 female.
Residential houses were 294, of them stone - 156, wooden - 138, covered with iron - 8, planks - 254, and straw - 32. Of these, 12 houses of 2-story. There were 18 industrial establishments, taverns, and 3 stores.
The peasants had 272 plows, 33 winnowing; horses - 634, bulls - 944, cows and calves - 1371, sheep - 1214, pigs - 885, goats - 303, all taxes and duties owed in 1885 - 8841 rubles. Allotment of land in the colony: 6400 dessyantine of suitable (including 4368 dessyantine arable land), 5636 dessyantine unsuitable, totaling 12,036 dessyantine, including Novouzensk district of the Volga 246 dessyantine. According to the Regional Committee for 1891, there are 292 households. 1,855 souls male, 1765 female, total 3620 persons of both sexes.
Prior to 1820 the colonists owned the homestead land, and then on the census male souls, in a same field, more distant, in the old days plowed much as they could, without dividing the allocated land. In 1873, vainly waiting for the new revision (poll census), land redistribution on cash and souls of men, who piled in dozens of 10 souls, the lot of every ten. In 1873, the land cut into sotenniki on 80 x 100 sazhen, in 1877 it was cut to 40 x 100 sazhen, and in 1881 - on 30 x 100 sazchen, with passage of the poles in 2 fathoms wide. All the land on ownership records 6400.2 dessyantine useable, and 5636.2 of dessyantine unsuitable, totaling 12,036.4 dessyantine, of that number, over the total allotment, the family Quint (5 registered males) owns 10.9 dessyantine useable and 2.7 dessiatine unsuitable, to inheritance law. The total number of allotments in Novouzensk district, Samara province, so wasteland 246.1 dessyantine suitable and 262 dessyantine unsuitable, of which now have only, say, 130 dessyantine. (up to 30 dessyantine are bush, and the rest meadow).
The main plot is located here in the village, and put in Novouzensk county - on the other side of the Volga River, 15 km away. The outermost end of the arable land is 12 km away. Wood, from the Volga River, around the allotment on the beams, it was up to 863 dessyantine of official action, but now, they say, left it up to 400 dessyantine small and large, in the year are cut down to 10 acres; drown more dung. - The allotment of black earth a bit, 1/3 sand, and the rest of loam and supesok; red clay subsoil, sand and stone. In the pasture of the Volga - two mountains, of which the largest Urakov mound, in allotments of up to 10 ravines, some of which are quite deep, in the ravines and rivers found conchoidal stone, very strong, which goes to the threshing stone, and sandstone - on buildings. - Hay here 65 dessyantine and up to 100 dessyantine Novouzensk in the county - all flood-plain meadows. - Voices of stretch of the river Dobrinka; kartofelniki in the field - especially. 2. Bakeries sleep with a shower; Public plowing there; public grain reserve stores - Most Russian wheat is sown, rye - 1/5 of the wheat, millet - 1/2 of rye, and little oats is sown, spring wheat was sown always. Sunflowers were grown around 1860, when the villager Sosnovs[kaya] from the parish Frikel first planted them. . Also sown were watermelons. System management 4-hpolnaya; rotation is as follows: steam and the watermelon, and part of the wheat, rye, wheat, rye, and part of the wheat, then steam and the watermelon. Plowing exclusively plows, mowing the wheat (and not harvested) and threshed threshing stones, sell carry it in Kamyshin. Gulev cattle grazing beyond the Volga to the rental station from spring to late fall, and the rest are here for cattle pasture, fallow or stubble, winter fodder straw and chaff, and horses - hay, which give and Walamo the spring before plowing. - In 1885 the society had withdrawn for 12 years on 1 January 1897 state-owned land in the province of Samara in 1417 amounting to ten. unsuitable land for 1,188 rubles. rent per year, on condition that they keep shifting economy (each of 3 fields to be planted for three consecutive years, and 2 others at this time should be left in peat) at the site settled 19 householders in charge of a special section of the clerk.
Private landlords renting land from Rozenbergskogo (Rosenberg) and Aleksandertalskogo (Alexandertal) societies to 2, 3, and rarely to 5 rubles. for breech tithe; from their fellow villagers remove allotment of taxes and levies to the surcharge to 8 rubles. Up to 14 people involved in finishing threshing stone, and had previously been more of them. In 1855-56, the Mennonites meadow side, knowing that there is a suitable stone, ordered by model threshing stones and from that time began to be engaged constantly trim them, were originally made in 1 arshin length and 1 arshin of thickness and length was added after 2 vershoks, the thickness of the same - with one side 12 vershoks in diameter, with another 11-1/2 vershoks, the narrow end of the stone when threshing is drawn to the center of the circle threshed. the stone, then the price rose to 18 rubles. and now for 3 and 4 rubles per stone; carry them to the Rising, which sells up to 10 rubles per stone. (Conversion: 1 arshin=5.4 sq feet, 1 vershok=1.75 in)
Lucrative Article society following: Fishing on the Volga River, a place in the inn, marketplace, 5 public water mills. Iin 1887 - Vogel?(Volertsky), Kvint (Kvintsky), Pflaummer (Flaumersky), Bishof (Bitaufsky) and Rau (Rensky), All proceeds from these articles of the Lower Dobrinka Company received in 1887 - to 1050 rubles per year.
According to the list of settlements of the Saratov province rural council in 1894 in the colony of Lower Dobrinka thought 296 homes, including - 1 Uchilischnaya house and 1 church-yard sluzhitelsky; mostly wooden structure, covered with boards, 1/4 part built of stone, including 5 houses of brick, roofed with iron, a village built on the plan. Inhabitants in 1894 - 2,066 souls male, 2005 female, for a total 4071 male and female owners of the German Lutheran settlers, including approximately 103 persons of both sexes Baptists, are one society and engaged in arable farming, about 60 people - the production of stone threshing machines (rollers from stone). Allotment of land: a comfortable 6400 dessiatine , unsuitable dess 5636., All 12036 desszatine., including 508 desszatine on the left bank of the Volga "Ten wasteland."
From the Lower Dobrinka up the river Dobrinka , 1 less than a verst (0.66 mi., 1.07 km) from each other, there are 6 mills water mills belonging to the society: Hubersky, Batgauers[kaya], Kvints[kaya], Plyaumers[kaya], Vallerts[kaya] and Millers[kaya], with each mill for 1 tenant court. From the Lower Dobrinka is down to the township village of Upper Kulalinki 11 versts (7.25 mi, 11.77 km) to the colony of Upper Dobrinka - 5 versts (3.3 mi, 5.35 km), through the upper Dobrinka (in summer the way) to colony Ust-Gryaznuhu (Kamensky parish) - 23 versts (15.1 mi, 24.6 km), colony of Dubovka - 12 versts (7.9 mi, 12.8 km), Kamyshin - 30 versts (19.8 mi, 32.1 km), Saratov - 150-155 versts (99 mi, 160 km) and the settlement of Mykolayiv - 30 versts (19.8 mi, 32.1 km)away.